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Far and away, pet owners spend more on pet food than on anything else they do for their pets.
According to the American Pet Products Association, which conducts a bi-annual National Pet Owners Survey, pet owners in the U.S. spent the following amounts on pet care in 2015:
Actual Sales within the U.S. Market in 2015
In 2015, $60.28 billion was spent on our pets in the U.S.
- Food – $23.05 billion
- Supplies/OTC Medicine – $14.28 billion
- Vet Care – $15.42 billion
- Live animal purchases – $2.12 billion
- Pet Services: grooming & boarding – $5.41 billion
The amount spent on pet food is projected to grow to $24.01 billion in 2016, and to continue to grow for the foreseeable future. Pet food sales have proven to be recession-proof. Not all of this money is spent on dog food but more households own dogs than cats (54.4 million to 42.9 million). Dog owners also report higher higher annual food costs than cat owners ($269 to $246 per pet).
The pet food market has been growing steadily for at least the last two decades when such industry surveys began. At the same time, pet ownership, including ownership of dogs, has also been growing. In 1988, the first year the survey was conducted, 56 percent of U.S. households owned a pet. Today, some 65 percent of U.S. households own a pet – or 79.7 million homes.
If you live in one of these 79.7 million homes that owns a pet, it means that pet food companies are working harder each year to appeal to you. They are looking for purchasing trends, hot new food trends (both for humans and animals), doing research on canine health, enzymes and microbials, new ingredients, trying new packaging and commercials, appealing to special health needs (gluten free, low-glycemic, GMO, allergies), supporting charities that people like, supporting fitness, youth, cuteness, things that pull on your heart strings – you name it! Every dog food company is looking for an angle or niche so they can be special.
We could go on but we don’t want to get too bogged down in statistics. If you google “dog food statistics 2015-16” you will find plenty of surveys, marketing info, and other facts about the pet food industry today. We’ll stop at saying that the industry is highly motivated when it comes to finding new ways to appeal to you and your dog. Whether all of those appeals are science or nutrition-based is another matter. Some of them include a heavy dose of smoke and mirrors.
Good foods, bad foods
Most of us probably believe that we can tell a good dog food just by looking at the bag or can. There’s a common belief that foods sold in grocery stores are automatically inferior to pet foods sold in pet food retail stores. Lots of people believe that foods made by small, independent pet food companies are superior to those made by large corporations. Many people believe that dog foods that cost more must be better foods. You get what you pay for, right? And grain free foods are better for dogs because dogs are carnivores, right?
As it happens, many “facts” about dog foods are myths. They have simply been repeated so often on the Internet or promoted by pet food companies that they are taken as truth. A lot of dog food information is not black and white. For example, you can find decent dog foods at the grocery store. You may not find a five-star holistic food there (though we have bought organic, top quality dog food at the grocery store – it depends on the store), but you can regularly find quality, nutritious dog food at the supermarket for a modest price. It usually takes a little research to identify the better foods. You need to read the labels and know the ingredients, for example. Like all other segments of the pet food retail market, supermarkets are keeping up with trends. You can even find grain free and other specialty foods at most grocery stores. Of course, if you want dog food with higher meat content and more specialized ingredients, you will probably need to head for a pet food retailer or buy dog food online. However, in some cases, fledgling small dog food companies will introduce their new foods through local grocery store distribution. This is how Nulo began their sales in Texas. If you are lucky enough to live close to a small company just starting out, go ahead and try some of their foods at your local supermarket. You might be able to buy a terrific food for a very moderate price – at least until the company goes national.
As for small companies vs. large corporations, we’ll have more to say on this subject later, along with a discussion about carbohydrates and dogs.
For now, try to keep an open mind about dog foods. Much of the “common wisdom” about pet food needs to be taken with a grain of salt.
Is pet food harmful to you dog
Depending on what you read online, or whom you choose to believe, many people think that the pet food industry is grossly under-regulated. According to this view, many companies are run by slick hucksters who spend their time trying to circumvent the few regulations that are actually in place so they can save a buck on ingredients. Some people even believe that dogs and cats are used to make pet food.
Some of this view is based on negative books about the pet food industry such as Foods Pets Die For by Canadian author Ann Martin. Martin’s book was originally published in 1997 and it has been widely quoted online ever since. Although Martin claims to have updated the book since that time, she does not seem to provide any new information in the later edition. Many people reading her book have questioned her research and facts. Nevertheless, the book is sensational and it has been very influential in making many pet lovers believe that commercial pet food is made using a disgusting process with harmful ingredients.
Other sources have looked at pet food regulations. You can find an interesting paper online titled “Death by Dog Food: A Critical Examination of Pet Food Regulation in the United States” by Kristina Fretwell. This paper examines current pet food regulations and makes some recommendations for the future. Unlike Martin’s work, which is simplistic, this paper does attempt to understand the complexities of the pet food industry and the regulatory/oversight bodies involved with it. It’s well worth reading if you are interested in pet food regulation.
As far as whether there are cats and dogs in pet food today, here is a quote from “Death by Dog Food” about a study that looked at this issue:
“In addition to these denatured animal products, euthanized companion animals can also be rendered for use in pet food. There is no law prohibiting the rendering of companion animals in the U.S., which was confirmed by the FDA…This reality is further illustrated by a 2002 investigation by the CVM into reports of sodium pentobarbital in dog food. Sodium pentobarbital is a chemical used to euthanize animals in the U.S. and according to a University of Minnesota study the chemical survives the rendering process without undergoing degradation. In its study, the CVM did find sodium pentobarbital in some samples of dog food and concluded that the residues are entering pet foods from euthanized, rendered cattle or horses…During the study, the CVM also developed a method for testing the DNA of rendered material used in pet foods and inspected some of the samples for remnants of dogs and cats. While they did not find any dog or cat DNA in any of the samples tested, the study was rather limited. The CVM only tested seventy-five dry dog food samples for the presence of sodium pentobarbital, all purchased from the same geographic region. Of those seventy-five samples, only thirty-one were tested for the presence of canine DNA. Additionally, while the results demonstrated an absence of canine DNA in all thirty-one samples, at the level of detection tested, the scientists who conducted the study could only say “if there is any canine material in the dog food, it is present at a rate of less than 7 lb. per 500 tons.”
In short, there was no DNA from cats or dogs found in the samples tested.
Another popular online paper about pet food regulation is “Deconstructing the Regulatory Façade: Why Confused Consumers Feed their Pets Ring Dings and Krispy Kremes,” written by Harvard student J. Patrick. This paper is from 2006 so some of it is slightly out of date, and it pre-dates the 2007 pet food recalls, but it still makes for interesting reading if you are interested in pet food regulations. The paper is more than a little biased against pet food companies but it still provides some good information about the different regulatory bodies and their roles in the pet food industry.
How to pet food regulated
Most people probably don’t spend much time thinking about our food supply or the pet food industry. They probably don’t think about who oversees these industries or how food gets into their pet’s food bowl. If you ask the average person, they might say the government watches out for these things. That’s true, in a way, but the government is a large entity, with many parts. Plus, the pet food industry does some self-regulation as well. Here’s how it works, in brief.
Federal regulations – At the federal level, the pet food industry is regulated by the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
The FDA has regulations concerning the truthful labeling of pet foods as well as the contents of the food. Pet food manufacturing plants can be inspected by the FDA, along with state regulatory organizations. Many of the FDA’s requirements relating to pet food come under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) or the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act and Title 21, part 501 of the Code of Federal Regulations . Pet foods don’t have to have preapproval from the FDA before they are sold but failure to comply with FDA regulations can have severe consequences. The FDA can request a company to make a voluntary change, but they also have the power to seize products, fine manufacturers, and even to imprison individuals. Many pet food recalls have been initiated by the FDA.
The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act – The FDA enforces the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). This Act requires that pet foods, like human foods, be pure and wholesome, contain no harmful or deleterious substances, and be truthfully labeled. The Act states, among many other things, that a food may be deemed to be adulterated if it contains poisonous or deleterious substances which may render it injurious to health; if it has been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions whereby it may have been contaminated with filth or rendered injurious to health; if it contains any part or product of a diseased animal; or if its container is composed of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render its contents injurious to health. It may also be adulterated if any valuable constituent has been omitted or substituted. A pet food may be considered misbranded if it contains any statement on the label which is false or misleading; does not contain an ingredient statement; does not contain the name of the food and proper identification of it as a pet food; does not contain the net weight or does not contain the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. The ingredients must be listed in descending order of predominance by weight, and identified by their common or usual names. The label must list any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative. If the food is to be used only under certain conditions, or only with other foods, this must be stated on the label, along with any other necessary information.
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act – The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act contains additional regulations designed to prevent unfair or deceptive packaging and labeling, and to help make it possible for consumers to make value comparisons between products. Federal regulations concerning the labeling of pet food are published in Title 21, part 501 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
USDA – The pet food industry is also regulated by the USDA. Along with inspecting farms where animals and produce are raised, the USDA is also involved with some of the regulations for pet food labeling and the approval of pet food ingredients. Companies can volunteer for USDA inspection of canned pet food. Regulations for voluntary inspections set standards for the amount of meat ingredients that have to be contained in a product. They also set minimum nutrient requirements and label specifications. The pet food companies that choose this voluntary inspection can apply a special seal to their label. This USDA inspection service is not used by many pet food companies.
People seem to argue back and forth online about whether the USDA inspects pet food manufacturing plants, but inspectors for the USDA’s Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) do inspect the USDA’s regulated facilities, including pet food processing plants. If you read the web sites for many pet food companies, they will discuss the inspections they undergo and USDA inspection is included. The FDA also inspects pet food facilities, though probably not as frequently as consumers would wish. In 2007 testimony about the pet food recalls due to melamine contamination, the director of the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine at the time, Dr. Stephen F. Sundlof, stated that the FDA had inspected about 30 percent of U.S. pet food manufacturers in the last 3 ½ years.
FTC – The pet food industry is also regulated by the Fair Trade Commission. Along with the FDA, they use the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act to stop companies from engaging in false or misleading advertising. Pet food companies have to conform to the FTC’s standards for truth in advertising.
State regulations – States have their own regulations regarding pet food and labeling, as well as their own departments of agriculture and pet food companies also have to follow these rules. Pet food regulations are usually combined with feed control laws, food and drug acts, and laws concerning weights and measures. These state laws govern the distribution of pet food throughout a state. This means that the same laws apply to pet food whether it is sold at the grocery store, a pet store, a feed store, or by a veterinarian. If a pet food manufacturer fails to comply with these state laws, they can be subject to serious penalties or be forced to stop selling the food in that state until they are in compliance.
States generally require each product be registered and the label reviewed or registered before the food is allowed on the market. The label is checked to make sure it meets the state’s requirements for information and to see that it doesn’t make false or misleading claims. Most state laws are similar to the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, and to the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. However, state law usually goes farther and requires pet food companies to provide guarantees for the minimum percentage of crude protein and crude fat, the maximum amount of crude fiber, and the maximum amount of moisture. States also have, by law, manufacturing plant inspection authority.
Here’s an example of one state’s commercial pet food rules. Most states look to the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) for guidance on labeling an other matters.
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) – In order to avoid a mish mash of confusing state laws in the pet food industry, most states follow the pet food regulations provided by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). AAFCO is a voluntary membership organization made up of officials from local, state, and federal agencies. AAFCO has no official regulatory authority but their membership is so inclusive that the organization is very important in the animal feed and pet food industries. Their goals are to ensure consumer protection, safeguard the health of animals and humans, and to provide “a level playing field for orderly commerce in the animal feed industry” (which includes pet food). The organization strives to develop and implement uniform and fair laws and regulations for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of animal feeds.
AAFCO publishes an official handbook each year – The Official Pet Food Regulations. States can adopt this handbook or make their own set of pet food regulations. Most states choose to use the AFFCO handbook.
AAFCO’s suggested regulations for pet food include requirements concerning the product name, guaranteed analysis, nutritional adequacy statements, proper names for ingredients, and other information about labeling. AAFCO also sets test requirements for feeding trials conducted by pet food companies and approves nutrient profiles so foods can meet requirements for nutritional adequacy before being marketed.
Other industry groups – Other industry groups have varying amounts of input on pet food regulations. Some of these groups have representatives who play an advisory role on government committees, for example. Or they may represent pet food manufacturers on food safety and nutritional task forces. They may produce their own guidelines for the pet food industry and/or collect data. Some of these groups include the Pet Food Institute, the American Pet Products Association, the American College of Veterinary Nutrition, the American Feed Industry Association, the US Poultry & Egg Association, the National Renderers Association, the National Grain and Feed Association, and others. Critics of the pet food industry, such as the TruthAboutPetfood.com site and its pet food safety advocates, also play an important role by advocating for consumers.
Is the pet food industry well-regulated?
That’s a difficult question to answer. The pet food industry certainly believes that it is heavily regulated. According to the Pet Food Institute, the trade organization that represents pet food manufacturers, “In the United States, pet food is the most highly regulated of all food products, with the possible exception of infant formula.” This position is echoed on the web sites of many pet food companies such as this one for Canidae: “The pet food industry is very heavily regulated and closely monitored. Much more so than most any other food industry with the possible exception of infant formulas. In fact, pet food regulations and guidelines govern ingredients used, ingredient origins, the process by which the foods are made, the nutritional content, and the exact ingredients information that appears on the label.” You can find similar statements about how well-regulated pet food is on many company web sites.
Obviously, the pet food industry has a vested interest in convincing the public that it is well-regulated. Some outsiders disagree. Kristina Fretwell, in Death By Dog Food, writes, “At first glance, it appears that pet food is heavily regulated but closer examination reveals a complex web of industry-dominated groups promulgating self-serving rules and regulations that will continue to ensure a healthy profit. While some of the most recent pet food crises have led Congress to pass federal legislation designed to increase food safety regulations, much has yet to be done to implement the measures. Additionally, some areas of concern have not been addressed at all, leaving serious gaps in the regulatory system.” (Fretwell, 2-3)
- Patrick, author of Deconstructing the Regulatory Façade: Why Confused Consumers Feed their Pets Ring Dings and Krispy Kremes, a very harsh critic of the pet food industry, believes that the relationship between the FDA and AAFCO is too cozy, among other things. He suggests that the various industry representatives serving as advisors on AAFCO committees are similar to “the fox guarding the hen house.” Patrick also finds fault with AAFCO’s labeling methodology, ingredient definitions, and their feeding trials and use of nutrient profiles. In fact, there is not much Patrick does like about the pet food industry.
“Despite the overabundance of labeling requirements and regulations, the majority of commercial pet foods fail pets and their owners; the myriad of rules serving only as obstacles too easily cleared. While the American public buys bags of pet food plastered with appetizing pictures of chicken and fish, the contents themselves often contain anything but the chicken and fish we envision.” (Patrick, 12)
Patrick also lashes out at veterinarians, pet food manufacturers, and even consumers. Patrick and Fretwell both likely owe some of their opinions about the pet food industry to Ann Martin, one of the early writers on the industry. Martin was (and still is) violently opposed to the commercial pet food industry and her book, Food Pets Die For: Shocking Facts About Pet Food, is a muckraking expose about the industry. In the book she makes scathing claims about the 4-Ds – dead, diseased, dying, and disabled animals being used to make pet food. She describes the process of making pet food in the most negative and graphic terms imaginable. She also claims that dead pets are used to make pet food. Her book was sensational when it was first published in 1997 and many people accepted her statements as fact. Many people still believe her claims years later, even without any evidence. Martin influenced a generation of pet food consumers to believe that there was something deeply unhealthy about pet food.
So, what is the real situation with pet food regulation? Each year millions of tons of pet food are sold in the United States.
Cat and Dog Food Sold in the United States (Metric Tons)
|Dog Food – Dry||4,567,100||4,993,400||5,089,000||5,060,400||5,090,100|
|Dog Food – Wet||927,300||767,100||772,200||759,600||758,800|
|Dog Treats & Mixers||103,800||159,700||158,600||157,900||167,900|
|Cat Food – Dry||1,256,300||1,409,100||1,417,200||1,445,900||1,470,600|
|Cat Food – Wet||736,700||689,000||725,500||751,100||764,800|
|Cat Treats & Mixers||9,700||27,900||30,300||31,400||33,100|
Source: Euromonitor International (via the Pet Food Institute web site)
In any year, even when there are a lot of pet food recalls, relatively small amounts of pet food are affected. Does this mean that all un-recalled pet food is safe? Perhaps not. It may simply mean that not all of it has been tested. But we probably can say that the pet food industry is at least moderately well-regulated and many of the big errors are caught. It is more than a self-regulated industry, as some of its detractors like to claim. No doubt there is room for improvement, as there is in most industries. There were changes after the 2007 recalls. Were they enough? The FDA has finalized the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) as it applies to the pet food industry and compliance dates for some companies will begin as soon as September 2016. Some pet food companies have stated that they will have no problem complying with the new rules since they already exceed the requirements while other companies are making changes in order to comply. The changes will affect several areas such as Produce Safety, Preventive Controls for Human Food and Preventive Controls for Animal Food, and Foreign Supplier Verification Programs.
How pet foods are made
At one time the web site for the Pet Food Institute had some good information, as well as images, to show how pet food is made. Unfortunately, with every site upgrade they seem to provide less real information. They have also removed a wonderful and detailed history of pet food that they had on their site at one time. At any rate, you can easily find information online about how kibble is made. The site PetMD.com provides a straightforward description:
In modern times, the process of creating dry pet food is done by either baking or extruding. Originally created to produce puffed breakfast cereals, the machines that are used for the extrusion process are an efficient method for manufacturing large quantities of nutritious, shelf-stable pet foods. This process begins with the dough — a mixture of raw dry and wet ingredients that are mixed together until they form a dough-like consistency. This dough is then fed into a machine called an expander, which uses pressurized steam or hot water to cook the ingredients.
While inside the expander, the material is under extreme pressure and high temperatures. The dough is then forced — or extruded — through specially sized and shaped holes (called die), where it is cut off by a knife. This process must be done while the dough is still compacted from the high pressure, since once the dough pieces have lost the effects of the high pressure, they puff up.
The puffed dough pieces are then passed through a dryer so that any remaining moisture is drawn out. The dough has now been transformed into kibble, which is sprayed with fats, oils, minerals and vitamins and sealed in packages before the fats and oils can spoil.
It doesn’t really matter whether you buy the most expensive kibble made or the cheapest. Just about all dry dog foods are made the same way, using the same kind of machinery and the same process. Differences between companies and brands come from the ingredients they use, the recipes for their foods, their quality control measures, customer relations, public relations, and other things that any company has to do to achieve a good reputation.
Canned/wet foods are made using different machinery. Many small companies do not have the capital when they are just starting up to invest in machinery to make both kibble and canned foods. You often find smaller companies that make their own kibble and out-source their canned foods to a co-packer that has the machinery to make canned/wet foods. After cooking and after any gels or thickeners are added to the canned food, wet food is put into cans or pouches. Then the containers are sealed and sterilized. Wet foods typically contain few preservatives compared to dry foods so sterilization is particularly important.
Once the containers are filled and sealed, they are placed in a heat sterilization device for canned foods called a retort, which brings the pressure and temperature of the containers to a carefully specified level designed to both kill bacteria and pressure seal the can so that spoilage before use may be prevented. This process is effective at killing potentially harmful bacteria or molds in the products so they can safely sit on the store shelf until they are purchased and opened.
You can see a good description of how canned foods are made here. Pet food companies are required to follow the same federal regulations for making wet pet food products that human food companies must follow for low acid foods (21 CFR Part 113).
In many cases today, smaller companies do not have their own manufacturing facilities at all. They rely on co-packers to make their dry and/or wet foods. At one time there was some feeling against companies that did not make their own foods but it has become so common today for companies to use outside manufacturers, this no longer seems to be the case. Only some of the larger, more well-established companies usually have their own manufacturing facilities today. As a consumer, you do have the right to know who makes food for a company, though not all companies are forthcoming with this information. Some manufacturing facilities have better reputations than others when it comes to recalls, following regulatory standards, and customer complaints. It can be difficult to keep track of who makes which foods for which brands, however, since brands can change the manufacturer they use at any time.
Most pet food recalls are initiated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because the issues that lead to recalls often fall under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), which is the purview of the FDA. There is a current trend for pet food companies to issue “voluntary” quiet company recalls in order to avoid publicity and for other reasons.
The FDA points out that there are three types of recalls. Recalls may be conducted on a firm’s own initiative, by FDA request, or by FDA order under statutory authority. Sometimes a company will take action to withdraw a product on their own initiative because they know if they don’t, the FDA will take action.
Most pet owners were probably unaware of pet food recalls prior to the massive 2007 pet food recalls which shook consumers. However, there were pet food recalls before that time. For example, if you check the FDA archives, you can find an alarming recall notice in 2003 concerning a Canadian pet food manufacturer and a Canadian cow that tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The dry dog food was then shipped to the U.S. The pet food was subsequently recalled and pet owners who had already fed the food were asked to watch their dogs. (Dogs are not known to suffer any health problems from eating this tainted meat but the U.S. government tries to keep the country free of BSE.)
In 2005, Diamond Pet Food issued a recall for some of its food due to the presence of aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is a toxic fungus that appears on corn and some other grains, usually due to being grown in drought conditions. Diamond was later sued in a class action lawsuit and paid $3.1 million to pet owners who had been affected. Ultimately, 76 dogs died and dozens of other pets became ill or suffered permanent liver damage. (Patrick, 5)
“Diamond Pet Foods, based in Meta, Mo., acknowledged that workers at its Gaston, S.C., plant failed to follow internal testing procedures to ensure its products were safe. The company made the acknowledgment after the Food and Drug Administration released a report showing the company has no record of test results for 12 shipments of corn in 2005, when grain tainted with the deadly fungus slipped into the plant.”
The contaminated food in this recall was sold in 23 states and Diamond recalled around 20 varieties of dog can cat food. This made it one of the biggest pet food recalls up to that time.
Most pet owners are somewhat familiar with the 2007 pet food recalls due to melamine contamination. The story is somewhat convoluted but gluten meal manufacturers in China fraudulently diluted their gluten with melamine and sold it to distributers in the U.S. Although most people think of melamine as a plastic, it chemically tests as a source of protein. It’s cheaper than corn gluten so the Chinese manufacturers thought no one would notice and they could save money. The U.S. distributers sold the adulterated gluten meal to various pet food manufacturers and it ended up in countless pet foods. The FDA received more than 14,000 complaints as a result of pets eating the contaminated pet foods, though they only confirmed 14 deaths. In all, more than 150 brands of pet food – most of it canned – was affected. In a class action suit plaintiffs received $12.4 million compensation.
Since 2007 there has been greater attention paid to pet food ingredients and many pet food companies, trying to win back shaken pet owners, have instituted in-house testing of ingredients. Many companies test for melamine now, as well as other possible contaminants. Yet there are still recalls.
You can easily find records of recent pet food recalls online. Not only does the FDA keep a list of recalled pet food, but so does the American Veterinary Medical Association, and so do several pet food critics. Checking these lists, the FDA recalled 973 pet food products between January 1, 2006 and October 20, 2009. This includes all of the products recalled during the 2007 melamine recall. It also includes products for dogs, cats, and other animals. And it includes treats as well as food. In the last year, the FDA has recalled some 96 individual foods, most of them dog foods.
For the purposes of these reports, when there is a recall, each food item is listed separately by size and flavor. So, if Brand X issues a recall for their salmon cat food and it comes in both 4 lb and 10 lb bags, it would be listed as a recalled item twice.
Customers also have problems with pet foods and launch lawsuits such as the class action suit against Beneful (still pending in court). The fight between Blue Buffalo and Purina, which led to Blue Buffalo’s admission that they had misled the public about their ingredients, also spawned a class action suit from consumers. Wysong has recently initiated a lawsuit against Purina, Mars, Hill’s, Walmart, and other pet food companies claiming that they have been engaging in false advertising because of the pictures of attractive ingredients on their packages. The pet food world is always exciting.
Now that we’ve looked at how pet food is made and who is supposed to regulate it, we’ll move on to your dog’s digestion and his nutritional needs